Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India

Volume 56 Issue 1

Managing Marine Protected Areas in Indonesia

doi: 10.6024/jmbai.2014.56.1.01750s-02

Indonesia, an archipelagic nation that consists of 17,504 islands and a total marine area of 5.8 million square kilometers, has valuable ocean and coastal resources and services that support development and community livelihood. However, overfishing, pollution, unsustainable fishing practices, and destruction of nursery habitats have threatened the sustainability of marine and coastal ecosystems and resources. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered an effective tool to manage resources of marine and coastal areas, including fisheries resources sustainably. With 15.7 million hectares of marine protected areas that have been established until 2012, Indonesia is committed to manage resources of marine and coastal areas in an effective and sustainable way. The Long-Term National Development Plan, the National Medium-Term Development Plans, Law on Fisheries and Law on Management of Coastal and Small Islands areas, and several government regulations provide policies to manage MPAs that adopt the concept of sustainable use. A zoning system has been established to harmonize the multiple objectives of the MPAs. The introduction of sustainable fisheries zone in the zonation systems of MPAs management has accomodated the rights of local communities, especially fishers, to utilize fisheries resources in eco-friendly practices. This paper addresses benefits and conflicts among users of MPAs and discusses the institutional and legal framework for managing MPAs. A tool to evaluate performace of MPA management and a zoning system are also addressed. Since the government of Indonesia is also committed to increase total area of MPAs to 20 million ha by 2020, the strategies to achieve the target are also reviewed. 


Marine Protected Areas, ecosystems, management, Indonesia.

Date : 15-10-2014